International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES)
This paper presents the results of a numerical parametric study on the seismic behavior of 2D triangular-shaped valleys subjected to vertically propagating incident SV waves. The medium is assumed to have a linear elastic constitutive behavior. All calculations are executed in time-domain utilizing the spectral finite element method. Clear perspectives of the amplification patterns of the valley are presented by investigation of the frequency-domain responses. It is shown that the amplification pattern of the valley and its frequency characteristics depend strongly on its shape ratio. The maximum amplification ratio along the ground surface occurs at the centre of the valley. A simple formula has been proposed for making initial estimation of the natural period of the valley in site effect microzonation studies. The natural frequency of the alluvial valley decreases as the shape ratio of the valley decreases; moreover, the value of the natural frequency of the triangular alluvial valley is bigger than the natural frequency of the corresponding rectangular alluvial valley.
Aki, K. and Larner, K.L. (1970) Surface motion of a layered medium having an irregular interface due to incident plane SH waves. Journal of Geophysical Research, 75, 933-954.
Aki, K. (1988) Local site effects on strong ground motion. Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics II, ASCE.
Aki, K. (1993) Local site effects on weak and strong ground motion. Tectonophysics, 218, 93-111.
Trifunac, M.D. (1971) Surface motion of a semi-cylindrical alluvial valley for incident plane SH waves. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America , 61, 1755-1770.
Sanchez-Sesma, F.J. and Esquivel, J.A. (1979) Ground motion on alluvial valleys under incident plane SH waves. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America , 69, 1107-1120.
Bard, P.Y. and Bouchon, M.A. (1980) The seismic response of sediment filled valleys, Parts I-II. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America , 70.
Sanchez-Sesma, F.J., Chavez-Garcia, F., and Bravo, M.A. (1988) Seismic response of a class of alluvial valley for incident SH waves. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America , 78(1), 83-95.
Graves, R.W. (1996) Simulating seismic wave propagation in 3-D elastic media using staggered grid finite differences. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America , 86, 1091-1106.
Bao, H., Bielak, J., Ghattas, O., Kallivokas, L.F., O'Hallaron, D.R., Shewchuk, J., and Xu, J. (1996) Earthquake ground motion modeling on parallel computers. Proc. ACM W IEEE Supercomputing Conference, Pittsburgh, USA.
Bard, P.Y. (1997) Local effects on strong ground motion: Basic physical phenomena and estimation methods for microzoning studies. Notes of the Advanced Study Course SERINA (Seismic Risk: An Integrated Seismological, Geotechnical and Structural Approach), Thessaloniki, Greece.
Faccioli, E., Maggio, F., Paolucci, R., and Quarteroni, A. (1997) 2-D and 3-D elastic wave propagation by a pseudo-spectral domain decomposition method. Journal of Seismology, 1, 237-251. 100 JSEE / Vol. 17, No. 2, 2015
Peyman Aminpour, Jafar Najafizadeh, Mohsen Kamalian, and Mohammad Kazem Jafari
Kokusho, T. and Matsumoto, M. (1998) Nonlinearity in site amplification and soil properties during the 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu earthquake. Special Issue of Soils and Foundations, 2, 1-9.
Bielak, J., Xu, J. and Ghattas, O. (1999) Earthquake ground motion and structural response in alluvial valleys. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 125, 413-423.
Paolucci, R. (1999) Fundamental vibration frequencies of 2-D geological structures. Proc. 2nd International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Lisbon, 1, 255-260.
Finn, W.D.L. (1991) Geotechnical engineering aspects of seismic microzonation. Proc. 4th International Conference on Seismic Zonation, Stanford, 1, 199-250.
Yegian, M.K., Ghahraman, V.G., and Gazetas, G. (1994) Seismological, soil and valley effects in Kirovakan, 1988 Armenia earthquake. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 120(2), 349-365.
Bardet, J.P., Kapuskar, M., Martin, G.R., and Proubet, J. (1992) Site Response of the Marina District of San Francisco during the Loma Prieta Earthquake. USGS Professional Paper 1551-F, the Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake
of October 17, 1989- Marina District, 85-140.
Graves, R.W. (1993) Modeling three-dimensional site response effects in the marina district basin, San Francisco, California. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America , 83, 1042-1063.
Zhang, B. and Papageorgiou, A.S. (1996) Simulation of the response of the Marina district basin, San Francisco, CA., to the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America , 86(5), 1382-140.
Graves, R.W. (1998) Three-dimensional computer simulations of realistic earthquake ground motions in regions of deep sedimentary basins. 2nd International Symposium on the Effects of Sur face Geo-Seismic Motion, Yokohama, I, 103-120.
Kawase, H. (1996) The cause of the damage belt in Kobe: "The basin-edge effect", Constructive interference of the direct S-wave with the basin-induced diffracted Rayleigh waves. Seismological Research Letters, 67(5), 25-34.
Takemiya, H. (1996) Effects of irregular soil profile on strong ground motion, The 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. Japan Society of Civil Engineers, 15-26.
Pitarka, A., Irikura, K., Iwata, T., and Sekiguchi H. (1998) Three-dimensional simulation of the near-fault ground motion for the 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu, Japan, earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America , 88, 428-440.
Matsushima, S. and Kawase, H. (1998) 3-D wave propagation analysis in Kobe referring to "The basin-edge effect". 2nd International Symposium on the Effects of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion, Yokohama, III, 1377-1384.
Hisada, Y., Bao, H., Bielak, J., Ghattas, O., and O'Hallaron, D.R. (1998) Simulations of longperiod ground motions during the 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu (Kobe) earthquake using 3-D finite element method. 2nd International Symposium
on the Effects of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion, Yokohama, III, 1353-1360.
Trifunac, M.D. and Hudson, D.E. (1971) Analysis of the Pacoima Dam accelerograms: San Fernando earthquake of 1971. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 61, 1393-1411.
Wong, H.L. and Trifunac, M.D. (1974) Surface motion of semielliptical alluvial valley for incident plane SH wave. Bull. Seismological Soc. of Am., 64, 1389-1408.
SaÂ´nchez-Sesma, F.J. (1983) Diffraction of elastic waves by three-dimensional surface irregularities. Bull. Seismological Soc. of Am., 73, 1621-1636.
Lee, V.W. (1990) Scattering of plane SH waves by a semi-parabolic cylindrical canyon in an elastic half-space. Int. J. Geophys., 100, 79-86.
Alterman, Z.S. and Karal, F.C. (1968) Propagation of elastic waves in layered media by finite difference methods. Bull. Seismological Soc. of JSEE / Vol. 17, No. 2, 2015 101 Seismic Response of 2D Triangular-Shaped Alluvial Valleys to Vertically Propagating Incident SV Waves Am., 58, 367-398.
Boore, D.M. (1972) Finite difference methods for seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous materials. Methods in computational physics. B.A. Bolt, ed., 11, Academic Press, New York.
Frankel, A. (1993) Three-dimensional simulations of ground motions in the San Bernardino Valley, California, for hypothetical earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault. Bull. Seismological Soc. of Am., 83, 1020-1041.
Lysmer, J. and Drake, L.A. (1971) The propagation of Love waves across nonhorizontally layered structures. Bull. Seismological Soc. of Am., 61, 1233-1252.
Smith, W.D. (1975) The application of finite lement analysis to body wave propagation problems. J. Geophys., 44, 747-768.
Li, X., Bielak, J., and Ghattas, O. (1992) Threedimensional earthquake response on a CM-2. Proc., 10th World Conf. Earthquake Engrg., 2, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 959-964.
Toshinawa, T. and Ohmachi, T. (1992) Love wave propagation in a three-dimensional sedimentary basin. Bull. Seismological Soc. of Am., 82, 1661-1667.
Bouchon, M. and Aki, K. (1977) Discrete wavenumber representation of seismic source wavefield. Bull. Seismological Soc. of Am., 67, 259-277.
Bard, P.Y. and Bouchon, M. (1985) The twodimensional resonance of sediment-filled valleys. Bull. Seismological Soc. of Am., 75, 519-541.
Kawase H. (1988) Time-domain response of a semicircular canyon for incident SV, P and Rayleigh waves calculated by the discrete wavenumber boundary element method. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 78, 1415-37.
SaÂ´nchez-Sesma, F.J., Ramos-MartÂ´nez, J., and Campillo, M. (1993) An indirect boundary element method applied to simulate the seismic respond of alluvial valleys for incident P, S and Rayleigh waves. Earthquake Engrg. and Struct. Dyn., 22, 279-295.
Kamalian, M., Gatmiri, B., Sohrabi-Bidar, A., and Khalaj, A. (2007) Amplification pattern of 2D semi-sine-shaped valleys subjected to vertically propagating incident waves. Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering, 23, 871-887.
Sohrabi-bidar, A., Kamalian, M., and Jafari, M.K. (2009) Time-domain BEM for three-dimensional site response analysis of topographic structures. Int. Journal Numer. Meth. Engng., 79, 1467-1492.
Sohrabi-bidar, A., Kamalian, M., and Jafari, M.K. (2010) Seismic response of 3-D Gaussian-shaped valleys to ertically propagating incident waves. Geophys. J. Int., 183, 1429-1442
Mossessian, T. and Dravinski, M. (1987) Application of a hybrid method for scattering of P, SV, and Rayleigh waves by near-surface irregularities. Bull. Seismological Soc. of Am., 77, 1784-1803.
Najafizadeh, J., Kamalian. M, Jafari, M.K., and Khaji, N. (2014) Seismic Analysis of Rectangular Alluvial Valleys Subjected to Incident Sv Waves by Using the Spectral Finite Element Method. International Journal of Civil Engineering
Psarropoulos, P.N., Tazoh, T., Gazetas, G., and Apostolouiv, M. (2007) Linear and nonlinear valley amplification effects on seismic ground motion. Soils and Foundations, Japanese Geotechnical Society, 47(5), 857-871.
Komatitsch, D. and Tromp, J. (1999) Introduction to the spectral element method for threedimensional seismic wave propagation. Geophys. J. Int., 139, 806-822.
Kamalian, M., Jafari, M.K., Sohrabi Bidar, A., and Razmkhah, A. (2008) Seismic response of 2D semi-sine shaped hills to vertically propagating incident waves: amplification patterns and engineering applications. Earthquake Spectra, 24(2), 405-430.
Aminpour, P., Najafizadeh, J., Kamalian, M., & Jafari, M. K. (2015). Seismic Response of 2D Triangular-Shaped Alluvial Valleys to Vertically Propagating Incident SV Waves. Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 17(2), 89-101.
Peyman Aminpour; Jafar Najafizadeh; Mohsen Kamalian; Mohammad Kazem Jafari. "Seismic Response of 2D Triangular-Shaped Alluvial Valleys to Vertically Propagating Incident SV Waves". Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 17, 2, 2015, 89-101.
Aminpour, P., Najafizadeh, J., Kamalian, M., Jafari, M. K. (2015). 'Seismic Response of 2D Triangular-Shaped Alluvial Valleys to Vertically Propagating Incident SV Waves', Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 17(2), pp. 89-101.
Aminpour, P., Najafizadeh, J., Kamalian, M., Jafari, M. K. Seismic Response of 2D Triangular-Shaped Alluvial Valleys to Vertically Propagating Incident SV Waves. Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 2015; 17(2): 89-101.