Time-Dependent Seismic Assessment of Typical Highway Bridges Subjected to Corrosion in Persian Gulf Zone

Document Type : Structural Earthquake Engineering



2 Islamic Azad University - South Tehran Branch


In high seismic regions, such as Persian Gulf zone in Iran, corrosion of reinforcement and concrete deterioration can affect the seismic capacity of the structures and increase the vulnerability to the future seismic events. Although corrosion of reinforcement has the potential to affect all types of reinforced concrete structures, the highway bridges are vulnerable to more damage because of deicing salts, water splash or even seawater during their life cycle. The long-term corrosion process of a deteriorated typical RC highway bridge in Iran is analyzed as a function of time by using nonlinear static and dynamic analyses for seven earthquake ground motion records at three levels of intensity (0.3g, 0.5g and 0.75g). Three combined effects of corrosion (the loss of the cross sectional area of the reinforcement bars, decrease of the capacity of corroded reinforcing bars, and stiffness degradation of concrete cover resulting from reinforcement corrosion) were used in the time-dependent nonlinear analyses for six different time steps (i.e., non-corroded (t: 0), 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 years) after corrosion initiation time. The results show that removing the concrete cover on bottom of columns has a greater impact on the structural capacity of the RC bridge than decreasing the rebar mechanical parameters.


  1. Vu, K. and Stewart, M.G. (2000) Structural reliability of concrete bridges including improved chloride-induced corrosion models. Struct. Saf., 22(4), 313-333.
  2. Choe, D.E., Gardoni, P., Rosowsky, D., and Haukaas, T. (2008) Probabilistic capacity models and seismic fragility estimates for RC columns subject to corrosion. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf., 93(3), 383-393.
  3. Choe, D.E., Gardoni, P., Rosowsky, D., and Haukaas, T. (2009) Seismic fragility estimates for reinforced concrete bridges subject to corrosion. Struct. Saf., 31(4), 275-283.
  4. Choi, E., DesRoches, R., and Nielson, B. (2004) Seismic Fragility of typical bridges in moderate seismic zones. Eng. Struct., 26, 187-199.
  5. Ghoddousi, P., Ganjian, E., Parhizkar, T., and Ramezanianpour, A.A. (1998) Concrete Technology in the Environmental Conditions of Persian Gulf. BHRC Publication, Tehran, Iran.
  6. MPO No. 294 (2006) CODE No. 294, Management and Planning Organization of Iran, Tehran.
  7. Tuutti, K. (1982) Corrosion of Steel in Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Stockholm, Sweden.
  8. Amleh, L., Lounis, Z., and Mirza, M.S. (2002) Reliability-based prediction of chloride ingress and reinforcement corrosion of aging concrete bridge decks - a case study investigation. Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Short and Medium Span Bridges, Vancouver, Canada, July-August.
  9. ACI-365.1R-00 (2000) Service Life Prediction-State of the Art Report. American Concrete Institute (ACI), Farmington Hills, MI.
  10. Ghosh, J. and Padgett, J. (2010) Aging Considerations in the development of time-dependent seismic fragility curves. J. Struct. Eng., 136(12), 1497-1511.
  11. Ghods, P., Chini, M., Alizadeh, R., and Hosseini, M. (2005) The effect of different exposure conditions on the chloride diffusion into concrete in the Persian Gulf region. Proceeding of International conference of ConMAT Conf., Vancouver, Canada, August.
  12. Kashani, M., Crewe, A., and Alexander, N. (2012) Durability considerations in performance-based seismic assessment of deteriorated RC bridges. Proceedings of 15th Wor ld Conference of Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal.
  13. Bertolini, L., Elsener, B., Pedeferri, P., and Polder, R. (2004) Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: Prevention, Diagnosis, Repair . Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany.
  14. Al-Sulaimani, G.J., Kaleemullah, M., Basunbul, I.A., and Rasheeduzzafar (1990) Influence of corrosion and cracking on bond behavior and strength of reinforced concrete members. ACI Struct. J., 87(2), 220-231.
  15. Ghandehari, M., Zulli, M., and Shah, S.P. (2000) Influence of corrosion on bond degradation in reinforced concrete. Proceedings of 14th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference, Austin, USA.
  16. Alonso, C., Andrade, C., and Gonzalez, J.A. (1988) Relation between resistivity and corrosion rate of reinforcements in carbonated mortar made with several cement types. Cement and Concrete Research, 18(5), 687-698.
  17. Stewart, M.G. and Rosowsky, D. (1998) Structural safety and serviceability of concrete ridges subject to corrosion. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 4(4), 146-155.
  18. Martinez, I. and Andrade, C. (2009) Examples of reinforcement corrosion monitoring by embedded sensors in concrete structures. Cement & Concrete Composites, 31(8), 545-554.
  19. Yalcyn, H. and Ergun, M. (1996) The prediction of corrosion rates of reinforcing steels in concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 26(10), 1593-1599.
  20. Liu, Y. and Weyers, R.E. (1998) Modelling the time-to-corrosion cracking in chloride contaminated reinforced concrete structures. ACI Materials Journal, 95(6), 675-681.
  21. Duracrete (1998) Probabilistic Performance Based Durability Design: Modelling of Degradation. Document, D. P. BE95-1347/R4-5, the Netherlands.
  22. Scott, A.N. (2004) The Influence of Binder Type and Cracking on Reinforcing Steel Corrosion in Concrete. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cape Town, Cape Town.
  23. Du, Y.G., Clark, L.A., and Chan, A.H.C. (2005a) Residual capacity of corroded reinforcing bars. Mag. Concr. Res., 57(3), 135-147.
  24. Du, Y.G., Clark, L.A., and Chan, A.H.C. (2005b) Effect of corrosion on ductility of reinforcing bars. Mag. Concr. Res., 57(7), 407- 419.
  25. Li, C.Q., Melchers, R.E. and Zheng, J.J. (2006) Analytical model for corrosion-induced crack width in reinforced concrete structures. ACI Structural Journal, 103(4), 479-487.
  26. Zhong, J.Q., Gardoni, P., and Rosowsky, D. (2010) Stiffness degradation and time to cracking of cover concrete in reinforced concrete structures subject to corrosion. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, 136(2), 209-219.
  27. Bazant, Z.P. and Planas, J. (1998) Fracture and Size Effect in Concrete and Other Quasi-Brittle Materials. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida and London.
  28. OpenSees [Computer software] OpenSees Development Team, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
  29. Karsan, I.D. and Jirsa, J.O. (1969) Behavior of Concrete under Compressive Loading. Journal of the Structural Division, Proceeding of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 95(ST12), 2543-2563.
  30. Mackie, K., and Stojadinovic, B. (2003) Seismic Demands for Performance-Based Design of Bridges. PEER Report 2003/16, Pacific Engineering Earthquake Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.
  31. PEER Strong Motion Database (2013) http://peer.berkeley.edu/peer_ground_motion_database.
  32. Alipour, A., Shafei, B., and Shinozuka, M. (2011) Performance evaluation of deteriorating highway bridges located in high seismic areas. J. Bridge Eng., 16(5), 597-611.