Analytical Study of Interior Rigid Bents Arrangement on Seismic Response of Tall Buildings

Document Type : Technical Note


1 Kharazmi University, Faculty of Engineering

2 International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES)


In this research, the performance abilities associated with tube type lateral load resistant framed systems are studied in order to assess the seismic response parameters of steel tall buildings under both far and near-field records. For this purpose, four 30 story structural models with separated framed tube-based skeletons were selected and designed. The structural models have been designed according to the Iranian seismic code 2800 (4th edition). The structural response parameters have been computed and obtained by conducting a number of non-linear dynamic time history analyses. Based on the analytical results obtained from nonlinear analyses, the values of maximum inter-story drift, story acceleration and velocity, dynamic base shear, configuration of plastic hinges mechanism, shear lag phenomena and residual drift were assessed and investigated. Yet, the results have been discussed and compared with the “life safety” and “collapse prevention” performance limits, as recommended by Fema 356. Findings from this study reveal that mean maximum demands and the dispersion in the peak values were considerably higher for near-fault records than far-fault motions. The obtained results indicate the fact that an appropriate arrangement and bundled configuration of interior rigid frames could remarkably reduce the appearance of shear lag phenomenon almost up to 70% as compared to the corresponding results with basic framed tube.


Taranath, B.S. (2005) Wind and Earthquake Resistant Buildings Structural Analysis and Design. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia
Naeim, F. (2001) The Seismic Design Handbook. 2nd edition, Kluwer Academic Publisher.
Coull, A. and Bose, B. (1975) Simplified analysis of frame-tube structures. Journal of Structural Division, 101, 2223-2240.
Azad, A., Ngo, T., and Samali, B. (2015) Control of wind-induced motion of tall buildings using smart façade systems. Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 14(1), 33-40.
Choi, S.W., Seo, J.H., Lee, H.M., Kim, Y., and Park, H.S. (2015) Wind-induced response control model for high-rise buildings based on resizing method. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 21(2), 239-247.
Elawady, A.K., Okail, H.O., Abdelrahman, A.A., and Sayed-Ahmed, E.Y. (2014) Seismic behavior of high-rise buildings with transfer floors. Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 14(2), 57-70.
Kwok, K.C.S., Tse, K.T., and Campbell, S. (2011) Field measurements of dynamic properties of high-rise buildings. Advances in Structural Engineering, 14, 1107-1128.
Ali, M.M. and Moon, K.S. (2007) Structural developments in tall buildings: Current trends and future prospects. Architectural Science Review, 50(3), 205-223.
Gunel, M. Ilgin, M.H. (2007) A proposal for the classification of structural systems of tall buildings, Building and Environment, 42(7), 2667-26.
Coull, A. (1988) Methods of analysis in the design of tall concrete and masonry buildings. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, 921-944.
Azhdarifar, M. (2015) Assessment of Seismic Response Parameters of Tall Buildings with Bundled Tube Structural System Subjected to Strong Near-Field Earthquake Records. M.Sc. Thesis, Kharazmi University.
Shin, M., Kang, T., and Pimentel, B. (2010) Towards optimal design of high-rise building tube systems. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 21(6), 447-464.
Zaghi, A.E., Soroushian, S., Itani, A., Maragakis, E.M., Pekcan, G., and Mehrraoufi, M. (2014) Impact of column-to-beam strength ratio on the seismic response of steel MRFs. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 13(2), 635-652.
Shahrouzi, M., Meshkat-Dini, A. and Azizi, A. (2015) Optimal wind resistant design of tall buildings utilizing mine blast algorithm. International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering, 5(2), 137-150.
Azhdarifar, M. Meshkat-Dini, A. and Sarvghad Moghadam, A. (2015) Evaluation of seismic response of tall buildings with framed tube skeletons in high seismic areas. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (SEE7), Tehran, Iran.
Somerville, P.G. (2003) Magnitude scaling of the near fault rupture directivity pulse. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 137(1-4), 201-212.
Mena, B. and Mai, P.M. (2011) Selection and quantification of near-fault velocity pulses owing to source directivity, Georisk, 5(1), 25-43.
Ruzi Özuygur, A. (2016) Performance-based Seismic Design of an Irregular Tall Building - A Case Study. Structures, 5, 112-122.
Azhdarifar, M., Meshkat-Dini, A., and Sarvghad Moghadam, A. (2015) Assessment of seismic response of mid-rise steel buildings with structural configuration of framed tube skeletons, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (SEE7), Tehran, Iran.
Erdik, M., Demircioglu, M.B., Sesetyan, K., and Harmandar, E. (2011) Characterization of Long Period Strong Ground Motion. Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 13(1), 1-15.
Azhdarifar, M., Meshkat-Dini, A., and Sarvghad Moghadam, A. (2015) Study on the seismic response parameters of steel medium-height buildings with framed-tube skeleton under near-fault records. Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering (EJSE), 15(1), 70-87.
Chanerley, A. and Alexander, N. (2010) Obtaining estimates of the low-frequency ‘fling’, instrument tilts and displacement time series using wavelet decomposition. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 8(2), 231-255.
Movahed, H., Meshkat-Dini A., and Tehranizadeh M. (2014) Seismic evaluation of steel special moment resisting frames affected by pulse type ground motions. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (BHRC), 15(4), 575-585.
Chioccarelli. E and Iunio Iervolino. (2010) Near-source seismic demand and pulse-like records: A discussion for L’Aquila earthquake. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 39(7), 1039-1062.
Sofi, M., Hutchinson, G.L., and Duffield, C. (2015) Review of techniques for predicting the fundamental period of multi-story buildings: Effects of Nonstructural. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics Components, 15(2), DOI:
Ghahari, S.F. and Khaloo, A.R. (2013) Considering rupture directivity effects, which structures should be named ‘long-period buildings’. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 22(2), 165-178.
Hemmat, M., Hashemi, S.S., and Vaghefi, M. (2013) Seismic evaluation of steel frames subjected to decaying sinusoidal records through IDA method. Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 15(3-4), 207-222.
Alonso-Rodriguez, A., Miranda, E. (2015) Assessment of building behavior under near-fault pulse-like ground motions through simplified models. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 79, 47-58.
Ghahari, S.F., Moradnejad, H.R., Rouhanimanesh, M.S. and Sarvghad-Moghadam, A. (2013) Studying higher mode effects on the performance of nonlinear static analysis methods considering near-fault effects, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 17(2), 426-437.
Bray, J.D. and Rodriguez-Marek, A. (2004) Characterization of forward directivity ground motions, Soil Dynamic and Earthquake Engineering, 24(11), 815-828.
Trifunac, M.D. and Todorovska, M.I. (2013) A note on energy of strong ground motion during Northridge, California, earthquake of January 17, 1994. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 47, 175-184.
Baker, W.J. and Cornell, C. (2008) Vector-valued intensity measures for pulse-like near-fault ground motions, Engineering Structures, 30(4), 1048-1057.
Mollaioli, F. and Bosi, A. (2012) Wavelet analysis for the characterization of forward-directivity pulse-like ground motions on energy basis. Meccanica, 47(1), 203-219.
Standard No. 2800 (2014) Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings, 4th Edition, Tehran, Iran.
Iranian National Building Code (Steel Structures - Division 10), Tehran, Iran 2014.
FEMA 356, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1998.
FEMA 440, Improvement of Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis Procedures, Applied Technology Council (ATC-55 Project), 2005.
CSI (2010) Analysis reference manual for Sap2000, Berkeley-California, USA.
CSI (2007) PERFORM3D - structural analysis software, Berkeley-California, USA.
Chang S.Y. (2003) Accuracy of time history analysis of impulses. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 129(3), 357-372.
Miranda, I., Ferencs, R.M., and Hughes, T.J.R. (1989) An improved implicit-explicit time integration method for structural dynamics, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics. 18(5), 643-653.