Investigation of Site Response Analyses of the Ezgeleh - Sarpol-e Zahab Earthquake, Iran, inWest of Sarpol-e Zahab Town

Document Type : Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering


1 International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran

2 University of Mazandaran, Babolsar

3 Azad University, Malayer


In this paper, the site conditions of the western parts of Sarpol-e Zahab were studied for their impact on the seismic waves of the Ezgeleh - Sarpol-e Zahab earthquake, which occurred on November 12, 2017. The aforementioned earthquake resulted in widespread damage in the town, particularly in its south-west parts. Although the first assumptions focused on construction issues or design weaknesses related to the buildings, the site effects should not be underestimated. Site effects are widely recognized as an important factor of seismic risk. Subsurface geotechnical and geophysical data in four different sites in the town fromthe north to the south of the western parts have been obtained, and used to estimate the local site condition on earthquake ground motion in the area. The ground response analyses have been conducted considering the nonlinear behavior of the soil deposits using equivalent linear approach. Fromthe results of this study, it was determined that the reason for the increase of destruction from North to the South parts of the region was the amplification of seismic waves.


  1. Astroza, R., Pasten, C., and Ochoa-Cornejo, F. (2017) Site response analysis using one dimensional equivalent-linear method and Bayesian filtering. Computers and Geotechnics, 89, 43-54.
  2. Askari, F., Azadi, A., Davoodi, M., Ghayamghamian, M.R., Haghshenas, E., Hamzehloo, H., and Shafiee, A. (2004) Preliminary seismic microzonation of Bam. Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 5(4), 69-80.
  3. Kramer, S.L. (1996) Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
  4. Liang, F., Chen, H., and Huang, M. (2017) Accuracy of three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis in time domain using nonlinear numerical simulations. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 16(3), 487-498.
  5. Tsai, C.C. and Chen, C.W. (2016) Comparison study of one-dimensional site response analysis methods. Earthquake Spectra , 32(2), 1075-1095.
  6. Huang, D.,Wang, G.,Wang, C., and Jin, F. (2018) A modified frequency-dependent equivalent linear method for seismic site response analyses and model validation using KiK-Net borehole arrays. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 1-18.
  7. Hessami, K., Jamali, F., and Tabassi, H. (2003) Major Active Faults of Iran. International Institute of Earthquake Engineer ing and Seismology (IIEES),
  8. IIEES (2017) Ezgeleh - Sarpol-e Zahab Earthquake Reconnaissance Report. International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES),, (in Persian).
  9. Ambraseys, N.N. and Melville, C.P. (2005) A History of Persian Earthquakes. Cambridge University Press.
  11. Iran Strong Motion Network (ISMN), Road, Housing and Urban Development Research Center (BHRC),
  12. Jafari, M.K., Ghayamghamian, M.R., Davoodi, M., Kamalian, M., and Sohrabi-Bidar, A. (2005) Site effects of the 2003 Bam, Iran, earthquake. Earthquake Spectra, 21(S1), 125-136.
  13. Hashash, Y.M.A.,Musgrove,M.I., Harmon, J.A., Ilhan, O., Groholski, D.R., Phillips, C.A., and Park, D .(2017) DEEPSOIL 7.0, User Manual.
  14. Vucetic, M. and Dobry, R. (1991) Effect of soil plasticity on cyclic response. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 117(1), 89-107.
  15. BHRC (2014) Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings, Standard No. 2800. Fourth Revision, Building and Housing Research Center, Tehran.
  16. Gazetas, G. and Ziotopoulou, A. (2010) Binormalized response spectrum for a rational soil-structure interaction analysis. Workshop on Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Knowledge and Effect on the Seismic Assessment of NPPS Structures and Components, Otawa, Canada, 6-8.
  17. Seed, R.B., Cetin, K.O.,Moss, R.E.S.,Kammerer, A.M., Wu, J., Pestana, J.M., and Reimer, M.F. (2001) Recent advances in soil liquefaction engineering and seismic site response evaluation. Proceedings of the, 4th International Conference Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, San Diego, CA.
  18. Eslami, A. (2019) Nor th West Tazehabad Earthquake Report. International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), (in Persian).
  19. Chang, S.W., Bray, J.D., andGookin, W.B. (1997) Seismic Response of Deep Stiff Soil Deposits in the Los Angeles, California Area During the 1994 Northridge Earthquake.